In certain circumstances, the principal activities of the holding company is mainly investment holding. The transactions throughout the year might be minimal, and the expenses are minimal as well. The only revenue earned is the management fees earned from its subsidiaries. How do we verify the management fees earned is not materially misstated?
Firstly, we should read the details of the agreement between the holding company and the subsidiaries, with respect to the calculation of management income. For instance, 80% of total revenue or 100% of expenses. These terms are not uncommon in today business world.
If we are auditing the holding company accounts and issuing financial statement for the holding company. We must ensure that the subsidiaries, where the holding company earned management fee, get audited as well.
This is because the revenue of the holding company is totally dependent on the subsidiaries' revenue. These are the cases applicable for company level financial statement.